Volume 2 Issue 1
The Progression of Carotid Intima-Media Thickness in Subjects of Type 2 Diabetes with an Increased Urine Albumin Excretion - A Two Years Follow-up Study
Chih-Hsun Chu*, Mei-Chun Wang
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) is characterized by early development of atherosclerosis resulting in high mortality and morbidity. Moreover, in patients with type 2 DM, the presence of nephropathy is associated with poor renal and cardiovascular outcome. Albuminuria is a characteristic aspect of diabetic nephropathy, while it is also a marker for increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) associated with endothelial dysfunction. Therefore patients with albuminuria are at very high risk of vascular injury and should share the same objectives of a vascular risk factor control as patients with overt CVD.
Therapy for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Targeting the ‘Unlucky Thirteen’
N. P. Somasundaram*, A. M. Wijesinghe
Glycemic control in diabetes mellitus is a key strategy to prolong survival and mitigate complications of diabetes. Understanding the pathophysiological mechanisms contributing to diabetes has resulted in newer targets and is clinically useful for personalized management plans. Pathophysiological mechanisms causing and playing a role in diabetes has continued to unravel at a rapid pace; starting with two factors (Insulin resistance and Insulin deficiency), then triumvirate (addition of hepatic gluconeogenesis), ominous octet (addition of deranged adipocyte metabolism, decreased incretin effect, increased glucagon secretion, increased renal glucose reabsorption and central appetite dysregulation) and recently dirty dozen (addition of Dopamine, Vitamin D, Testosterone and Renin angiotensin system).
Hepatic Adaptations to a High Fat Diet in the MRL Mouse Strain are Associated with an Inefficient Oxidative Phosphorylation System
Ahlke Heydemann*,Magdalis González-Vega, Tirsit K. Berhanu, Aaron J. Mull,RagavSharma, and Jenan Holley-Cuthrell
The MRL mice are resistant to a 12-week high fat diet (HFD) feeding protocol, with the proximal cause being an increased basal pAMPKT172 expression in the skeletal muscle. Here, we test if this lack of pathology extends to the liver at both the tissue and cellular levels and its correlation to pAMPKT172 levels. MRL and B6 mice were subjected to 12 weeks of diet intervention and tissues were either fixed for histology or snap-frozen for further processing (n= 3-6, per group).
miRNA-15a, miRNA-15b, and miRNA-499 are Reduced in Erythrocytes of Pre-Diabetic African-American Adults
Maurice B. Fluitt, Namita Kumari, Gail Nunlee-Bland, Sergei Nekhai, Kanwal K. Gambhir*
The genetics of T2DM is complex and not clearly understood. The search for diabetes genes and risk markers is complicated by the heterogeneity of the metabolic disease. Genomewide association studies (GWAS) have identified several genetic variants in association with T2DM. However, since the first T2DM GWAS study, identified genetic variants have been modestly associated with T2DM and account for only about 10% of genetic risk. Further complicating the identification of genetic biomarkers for T2DM is ethnicity, as genetic variants may be ethnic specific. Additional studies to identify risk markers in the African-American population are needed.